Romania - NVR 53 RO-(VKM)
Căile Ferate Române (CFR)
Căile Ferate Române (abbreviated as CFR) is the official designation of the state railway carrier of Romania. The railway network of Romania consists of 11,380 km (7,070 mi), of which 3,971 km (2,467 mi) (34.9%) are electrified, and the total track length is 22,247 km (13,824 mi), of which 8,585 km (5,334 mi) (38.5%) are electrified. The network is significantly interconnected with other European railway networks, providing pan-European passenger and freight services. CFR as an entity has been operating since 1880, even though the first railway on current Romanian territory was opened in 1854.
CFR is divided into four autonomous companies:
CFR Călători, responsible for passenger services;
CFR Marfă, responsible for freight transport;
CFR Infrastructură, manages the infrastructure on the Romanian railway network; and
Societatea Feroviară de Turism, or SFT, which manages scenic and tourist railways.
CFR is headquartered in Bucharest and has regional divisions in Bucharest, Brașov, Cluj-Napoca, Constanța, Craiova, Galați, Iași and Timișoara. Its International Union of Railways code is 53-CFR. The first railway line on Romania's present-day territory was opened on 20 August 1854 and ran between Oravița in Banat and Baziaș, a port on the Danube. The line, which had a length of 62.5 km, was used solely for the transportation of coal. From 12 January 1855, the line was operated by Imperial Royal Privileged Austrian State Railway Company, the Banat province being at that time part of the Austrian Empire. After several improvements in the following months, the line was opened to passenger traffic from 1 November 1856.
Between 1864 and 1880, several railways were constructed in the area of the Kingdom of Romania. On 1 September 1865, the English company John Trevor-Barkley began construction on the Bucharest–Giurgiu line. Commissioned by the King of Romania, the line was opened to traffic on 26 August 1869. The Bucharest-Giurgiu line was the first railway built on Romanian territory at that time (considering that the Oraviţa-Baziaş line was part of Austria-Hungary, even though it presently lies on Romanian territory)